Sunday, January 26, 2020
McDonalds Leadership and Management When McDonalds opened its doors for business, a new trend of fast food emerged in California, back in 1954. Ray Kroc laid the foundation of what is now one of the worlds leading food retailers. McDonalds has more than 32,000 restaurants in more than 100 countries serving more than 60 million people every day. Catering to such a large customer base and extending its roots in other countries was not an easy task, strong values and effective management were the prerequisites required to make the company where it stands today. Since its inception, McDonalds has been actively engaged in innovating and building strong customer relations. From a chain of few restaurants to franchisees and drive thru restaurants, McDonalds has lived up to its promise of maintain convenience for its customers. Highlighting the key success areas, McDonalds label the experience as the major determinant (Long, 2006). The core part of their business is QSC V. QSC V stand for quality, service, cleanliness and values. Emphasis on these factors with effective implementation through four management functions is what constitutes the major ingredients for McDonalds success. Functions of Management Management is creative problem solving with the desired result of using organizational resources in a way that accomplishes its mission and objectives. These results are obtained by four management functions to which we turn next in context with the McDonalds. Planning is the ongoing process of developing the business mission and objectives and determining how they will be accomplished. McDonalds shares its ideas through its well developed vision. This vision statement serves as the binding glue between the employees worldwide. They all aim to serve their customers by giving them the best quality products at their convenience. This vision statement clearly indicates the future of the organization. At McDonalds every employee knows where they are heading towards and what their individual contribution. The vision acts as the binding force which gives the employees a sense of purpose and commitment. The second aspect of planning is to have a clear defined mission. McDonalds mission statement is to be our customers favorite place and way to eat (Dentch, 2009). This mission defines their business and their place in the life of its customers. Planning at McDonalds identify the goals and objectives and develop their strategies and tasks to accomplish these goals. Planning at McDonalds is aligned with the changes in the external environment; it also faced many challenges like local taste of people, cultural values, and traditions of specific area in which they want to enter. The planning process maintained the core values at all franchisees, however the local demands were taken into account to indulge in their culture completely. Strategies were modified to suit the needs of the area in which they entered. This was reflected in the operations as well as the resource utilization. One aspect that highlights McDonalds effective planning is how they manage their supply chains. Timely delivery and quality raw materials were the result of establishing good relations with the supply chain partners. As a result of this strategic planning, McDonalds went into the business of a 24/7 restaurants. This was to match the demands of the all types of customers and to boost the profits by extending the store hours. This was accompanied with introducing breakfast at McDonalds which further added to the menu. McDonalds was now offering all three meals of the day along and was thinking along the lines of adding snacks to the menu. With clearly defined purpose of the business, embedded values that dictate the vision and emphasis on the role of planning, McDonalds is able to achieve sustainable profits. Organizing is establishing the internal organizational structure of the organization. The focus is on division, coordination, and control of tasks and the flow of information within the organization. It is in this function that managers distribute authority to job holders. in todays society it is important that management considers the employees and customers as the most important asset of the organization. Having a rigid structure undermines the creativity of the employees, thus the culture of empowerment and delegation is what currently prevails in the competitive environment. McDonalds uses the collaborative management approach which connects all the global franchisees worldwide under the umbrella of single company name (Long, 2006). Management encourages the practice of working and assisting with each others franchisees to deliver the best to their customers by coping up with external challenges and representing a collaborative responsible culture. In order to ensure consistent q uality, the standards are uniform for all franchises. Thus a centralized structure prevails in terms of training programs, supplies and operations. The formal structure at McDonalds divides the organization in the departments and every individual knows his tasks well at which he needs to be specialized. However, these standard procedures do not give rise to bureaucratic rigidity in the organization; each employee is committed to achieve their goals. The organizational structure chosen supports the performance and is aligned with the strategy of the restaurant of providing consistent quality and great service experience. Leadership at McDonalds, the CEO is seen as the focal point from which the leadership emerges. Jim skinner, the current CEO of McDonalds has been entertained with this title for the past thirty five years (Dentch, 2009). Skinner is said to be an excellent leader with charismatic and transformational leader. He has said to revitalize the organization and introduced a new fast food business with his new vision. The turnaround at McDonalds can be fully attributed to his creative and innovative leadership. He was one of those who introduced plan to win initiative that emphasized the significance of store operations. Having a diverse background and expertise, he adapted strategies to keep his employees motivated and committed. Under his leadership, he places great importance on customer satisfaction; customers come before his employees and restaurants. He promotes creativity but does not let his employees focus the primary motive of his organization. He believes in finding the talent therefore he assigns different tasks to his employees and the best one is awarded and granted with more responsibility. Skinner places importance on values and ethics. When McDonalds was blamed for obesity, he did not hide behind passing on the blame; instead he took actions to positively handle the situation. Thus he can be seen as a moral leader who makes McDonalds a better place for both employees and customers. Controlling at McDonalds is the amalgam of motivated workers and the clear policies which keep them right on the track. The line manager is in charge of keeping the employees working according to the standards. At a broader perspective, every franchise must follow quality standards and abide by the strict supplier policies (Long, 2006). This is to ensure that the brands name is not in danger by irresponsible activities at individual franchise level. McDonalds Corporation believes in training its employees at Hamburger University. This is to ensure that employees are clear about the benchmark and how they modify any shortcomings in their performance to meet these standards. Flexible work schedule, fun loving culture, training and a healthy work life balance is what keeps the employees motivated. Though McDonalds is known for its tight control and bureaucratic structure, it in no way inhibits employee productivity or commitment to the organization. Conclusion McDonalds is a global fast food chain known for its quality food and great customer experience. Through strict and clear policies and under the charismatic leadership of Skinner, McDonalds have been able to build a reputable image in the minds of its consumers. Actively responding to the changing needs of its customers, it has been able to maintain its brand essence along with rising profits. A perfect blend of the four management functions namely, planning, organizing, leading and controlling has been the key driver behind McDonalds success.
Friday, January 17, 2020
A man that spends many years in active service be it for himself or for a more noble reason such as his country or people, would more certainly than not find retirement a disorienting prospect once he faces it. Retirement means stopping whatever has kept one alive and working for most of his healthy years. It means realigning his goals, getting used to other, more leisurely and less strenuous habits as befitting old age, and preparing to face death with peace and resignation. In Lord Alfred TennysonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬Å"UlyssesÃ¢â¬ , the mythical hero of HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s epics expresses his anxiety about coming back home to Ithaca to reclaim his old responsibilities as king after years of traveling overseas and fighting the Trojan war, and his desire of undertaking a new adventure, instead. The poem begins with Ulysses dreading his return to resume the job of Ã¢â¬Å"an idle kingÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 1). He could not imagine the relevance of staying home Ã¢â¬Å"with an aged wifeÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 3) and to Ã¢â¬Å"mete and doleÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 4) rewards or punishments to the people he governsÃ¢â¬âmost of whom he does not know nor they of him but for his position as king. Ulysses does not like his former life of idleness and monotony even if it was a life of comfort and wealth. He prefers to travel and seek for adventures, testing life to its limits. For Ulysses, traveling means enjoying and suffering unpredictable moments. The sea and foreign lands, unlike a kingdom, presents varied and new experiences. Those that he had experienced so far have given him Ã¢â¬Å"a hungry heartÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 12). His voyages have brought him to strange places, allowed him to interact with different peoples, customs and cultures, and meet creatures unimaginable if one simply stayed in one place all his life. Moreover, he has experienced the Ã¢â¬Å"drunk delightÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 16) of war in Troy. Nothing in his kingdom could equal the things he did and witnessed. All that Ulysses saw and did made him what he has become and has produced a kind of restlessness or thirst upon his soul that cannot now be satiated by ruling a kingdom. This past life as king has become dull in comparison to his life as a voyager and soldier. According to him, a person who is contented with his present life is like rusting and acknowledging that the only purpose of life is to breathe. Ulysses wants to Ã¢â¬Å"follow knowledge like a sinking star/ Beyond the utmost bound of human thoughtÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 31-32). He would like to keep exploring and test the boundaries of the capacities of an ordinary mortal, even one who is already old and less agile. He believes that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s age is not a factor to consider because Ã¢â¬Å"old age hath yet his honor and his toilÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 50). Only death can stop and end the possibilities that life has to offer. In the end, Ulysses appoints his son, Telemachus, to take his place as king, leaving him Ã¢â¬Å"the scepter and the isleÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 34). Meanwhile, he prepares to embark on another journey. The speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s exhortations to his former companions in the final stanza may well be read as words that any man should well take heed as a personal advice, especially those who are contemplating a sedentary retirement in their senior years. The lines encourage everyone to not worry about the physical limitations that old age imposes upon every individual because the weakness of the body can easily be overcome when one is Ã¢â¬Å"strong in willÃ¢â¬ (Tennyson 69). This is also how a heroic life is lived.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Paper on Memory Memory is part and parcel of every individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This is because it makes the human race function. If one does not remember how, when, what, where, and who of experiences encountered in everyday life, human beings would not manage. The importance of the role played by memory warrants intensive studies to discover the workings of human memory, how it can be enhanced given that it tends to fade upon the progression of age, and how it can be effectively used to generally improve life. In this regard, extensive studies have been carried out in this regard. This paper will evaluate two journal articles that focus on the general area of memory, and which has been narrowed down to their respective study focuses. Theoretical Rationale and Background The study carried out by Olkkonen and Allred (2014) focuses on the effect that short-term memory has on color perception. The theoretical rationale is based on the indication that color-based object selection is demanding on both memory and perceptual processes. In this case, Olkkonen and Allred (2014) indicate that it is important to form stable perceptual estimate of the surface color in memory and also retain a multiple perception estimate when comparing various objects. The authors identified a missing link on the basis that a majority of research programs fail to show the independence between memory and color perception, where in most cases, color appearances are weakened as a result of a short focus and retention interval between a test stimulus and a reference. Research Questions The guiding research questions for this study are as follows: Are color constancy and memory processes independent? What is the impact of a short retention interval on a color appearance context? What is the impact of a joint analysis of perception and memory in color tasks? Experimental Design and Findings The experimental design adopted in this study is that of a real-world color hue testing. In this case, tomatoes under different lighting hues were used as the primary method and analyzed by various scientific techniques. In this case, the illumination differences created a perception of the ripeness of the tomatoes. According to Olkkonen and Allred (2014), despite being an easy task, the analysis of optimally ripe tomatoes tends to place to significant demands on the processing of visual information. The tomatoes were placed in four different panels that were under different illumination. Tomatoes in two panels were under direct illumination, while those in the other two panels were in the shadows. In this case, it requires one to commit to memory the surface color of tomatoes as well as object properties and use this information by comparing tomatoes to determine the best buy. The independence of color constancy and color memory was determined by measuring precision for hue and appearance in a factoral design with memory and constancy manipulations. The authors also adopted the ANOVA test to evaluate the effects of memory and constancy on thresholds, where memory, constancy, and reference backgrounds were included as fixed effects while the random effect was subject. The findings of this study revealed that the effect of color appearance context is modulated by short-term color memory. The authors indicate that the finding of this study is incongruent with the hypothesis that memory and constancy processes are independent through an implicit assumption of color memory and color perception. Furthermore, Olkkonen and Allred (2014) indicate that the delay between the reference and test interval of the tomatoes that was caused by the illumination and shadow backgrounds made them appear functionally similar. This is based on the reflection that an observer would estimate the reflectance of light and the illumination color jointly. Conclusion The authors conclude that the short-term memory impacts color processing in a manner that is similar to that of an observer who takes prior information into consideration in different degrees on the basis of sensory signal variability. The concept of memory is evaluated in an educational setting by McDermott, Agarwal, Antonio, Roediger, and McDaniel (2014). In this case, McDermott et al (2014) assess the impact that multiple-choice and short-answer class quizzes have on the retention of information of students. The authors narrowed their sample population to middle and high school levels. Theoretical Framework and Background The authors base their study on various research findings through laboratory testing that reveal that in all levels, the assessment of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ learning has the potential to influence retention at a later time. Furthermore, studies have indicated that even without corrective feedback, the attempt to retrieve information tends to enhance the likelihood of individuals to retrieve the information. This phenomenon is referred to as the Testing Effect. McDermott et al, (2014) provide that the above assertion is based on laboratory studies, which are suggestive and therefore not sufficient in providing recommendations. Furthermore, in most instances, laboratory tests present information once, a situation that differs considerably in the classroom setup where integrated content is repeated frequently. For this reason, their research study is based on a classroom setting, a concept that is feasible and can be applied in real situations. Despite various studies carrying out their research on testing effects in classroom settings, only a few have managed to undertake this task with the use of actual course testing and assessment (McDermott et al, 2014). Therefore, the basis of this study is founded on the findings of previous studies that reveal the positive influence of low-stake multiple-choice tests coupled with immediate feedback on the correct answer on the retention capability of students. Research Questions According to McDermott et al (2014), the guiding research questions in this study are as follows: Can educators adopt the knowledge of the use of low-stake multiple-choice classroom quizzes in order to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ learning capability? Does the adoption of initial quizzes improve the performance of the unitÃ¢â¬â¢s main exam? Experimental Design and Findings The study involved 141 seventh-grade student participants in the study drawn from a public middle school from a middle-class community. The experiment involved three learning conditions, namely, short-answer quiz, multiple-choice quiz, and not tested conditions and two unit exam format, namely, short-answer and multiple-choice formats. In this case, course materials from two units from the seventh grade were used, bacteria and earthÃ¢â¬â¢s water. Three initial tests were administered for each unit. The first was a pre-lesson quiz that was administered before the material was taught, a post-lesson quiz, after students were taught the material, and a review quiz, which was administered one day prior to the exam. Pencil and paper worksheets as well as a clicker response system were adopted in the study. The findings of the study revealed an improvement in performance in the pre-lesson quiz to the post-lesson quiz, and eventually, to the review quiz in the case of the initial quiz performance. Furthermore, more students answered the multiple-choice quiz correctly compared to short-answer quizzes (66% and 40% respectively). In the case of unit-exam performance, participants performed best on questions that had appeared on the multiple-choice quizzes , moderately for short-answer quizzes, and the worst in cases where items were not tested previously. Conclusion McDermott et al (2014) conclude that the performance of students ultimately improve through the quizzes, the pre-lesson, post-lesson, and the review quizzes. This demonstrates that they have learnt the material and have an enhanced comprehension of the material. In light of whether the quizzes had an influence on the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ performance in the main exam, the research revealed that quizzes that took the form of a short-answer format enhanced performance of latter tests. This mostly applied in instances where quizzes adopted a multiple-choice format. The findings of Olkkonen and Allred (2014) reveal the need for further analysis of visual information processing in relation to the use of memory. As such, the results of this study can be adopted in further understanding the role played by sensory capabilities of an individual in relation to memory, and its impact on decision making. In the second case, the study by McDermott et al (2014) reveal the influence of pre-testing on the overall performance of students in the main test. This can be adopted in educational settings, where quizzes should adopt a multiple-choice format and should be administered several times prior to the main exam in order to allow students retain more information, hence improve their learning experience. The findings of the above two studies can be accommodated in professional settings without any modifications. This is because the first is based on a practical experience of lighting and its influence in memory development and decision making, as in the case of grocery selection. The second case also involves a practical experience in the classroom. Therefore, the studiesÃ¢â¬â¢ findings can be incorporated in respective areas. A follow-up study need not be conducted as the studies are based on practical situations, hence can fit in professional setting.
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Application Paper Carolyn Strickland THEO 104 D43 LUO August 17, 2015 I. Introduction As each of us travel through life, decision making is a perpetual fact. Sometimes the choices are simple, straightforward and just happen without any thought. Sometimes the choices are harder, more complex, and often do not have a clear option. It is during these difficult decisions that Christians have an advantage over the non-believer. The non-believer often gets frustrated, overwhelmed and states that it is hopeless; therefore they give up easily. As a believer in Christ, we know that our hope rests in the arms of God. Hope never ends and is always there when you need it. This leads to the question of how to find hope and understand prayer. Our hope comes from developing a relationship with God through daily prayer. It is prayer that strengthens our hope. Prayer is a direct line of communication with God. Without hope, there is no room for prayer. As we pray, our hope reflects GodÃ¢â¬â¢s love in our life even in the difficult times. Hope II. Part One a. Theological Definition: Hope Hope is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a reliance on GodÃ¢â¬â¢s blessing and provision; the expectation of future good.Ã¢â¬ (Youngblood, 1995) Hope is a confident expectancy. It is an indication of certainty and not being doubtful. It deals with things we cannot see or have not received. Hope is for and about the future; it is what keeps us going. Faith is what creates our hope. Hebrews 11:1 defines hope the best:Show MoreRelatedThe Debate Over School Prayer1096 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThis paper will examine the topic of prayer in school. School prayer has remained a subject of national debate in the United States. This freedom has slowly but surely been taken away from students across the country. 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